Manufacture of cotton

1. Growing and harvesting- cotton grows on bushes 3-4 feet height, the blossoms or flowers appears, falls off and the ball begins its growth, inside the ball are the seeds from which the cotton fibers grow.

This is also called seed hair. When ball is ripe, it splits open and the fluffy white cotton stands out from the ball.

The cotton is picked up with the help of machine or by hand. Cotton gets discolored and dirty if it is kept on plant for longer duration.

2.Ginning- in this process seeds are removed and fibers are pressed into bales. This process is carried out by a machine. Seeds are used for the production of oil, soaps and cosmetics. The fiber at this stage is called LINT.

1                                                                       Ginning
3. Bailing- cotton is compressed or pressed into bales. These are wrapped with jute cocking and cotton is then supplied to mills in bales.

4.Opening and picking-
opening refers to opening of the bale and loosening and fluffing of the fiber which have been tightly packed into bales.

Layers of fibers from several bales are fed into an opener. The fibers emerge from the opener like a fluffy mass, i.e. 10-15 times as bulky as compared to the bale.

The picking machine continues the loosening and cleaning of the fibers and a thick white sheet is formed which is called LAP.


In this process the lap passes between two cylinders covered with clothing, which is a heavy fabric with many specialty bent wires. Individual fibers are straightened and made somewhat parallel.

In this machine cotton is thoroughly cleaned off all embedded dirt and foreign matter. There is no sorting of long and short fibers. The fibers emerges from the carding rolls as a thin sheet

it removes the short fibers and keeps rest of the fibers nearly parallel. As much as ¼ of the fiber may be combed out as waste which are used for other purposes.

The fibers that remain here are long staple, good quality fibers. These are used for manufacturing cotton. Combed fibers are fine, uniform, strong and smooth.

The thin sheet of fibers laid parallel to each other after combing. These are given a slight pull and then twisted into one inch thick, long sliver. The slivers are collected in a dram

The slivers are fed into the drawing rolls at the same time. This is a continuation of the blending which started in the opening process.

The drawing frame consists of four sets of cells, each of which travels at a faster speed then the previous set. The difference in the speed causes elongation of the sliver and reduction in the diameter.

9. Roving- this is similar to drawing but the diameter of the sliver reduces further and slight twist is given. Then it is wound on the bobbin.

10.Spinning & weaving- in factories cotton is spun into yarns on large spinning machines. Afterwards it is fed to the spools which are sent for weaving to the weaving mills.

11.Dyeing & finishing- the woven fabric is dyed with different colors and then finishing is given to the fabric t improve its appearance and to remove certain drawbacks or limitations.

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